As demands for better water stewardship increase throughout the world, so too will the need for managing this precious resource in industrial operations. This includes a number of activities, inclusive of possessing a better understanding of all the uses of water throughout an industrial complex and conserving water when appropriate; finding innovative ways to treat single or combined waste water streams; and recycling water to improve water and energy efficiency.
Our exclusive client, Reliable One Resources, understands all of the uses of water within an industrial complex. From water for utilities to facility management to process applications, Reliable One has essential expertise in understanding water and its impacts on your operations. Reliable One has proprietary knowledge as well as patent pending, industry proven technology that serves as the next ultimate solution in the filtration of highly toxic frack water that is a by product of the oil and gas industry. Reliable One's technology can filter toxic brine water to drinkable standards as well transport the recycled water back to the driller at a fraction of the industries going rate.
Since produced water and frac water contain large amounts of suspended solids, including hydrocarbons, Reliable One’s treatment process contains six different steps:
Step 1) Ion Exchange process – ion exchange involves removing the hardness ions calcium and magnesium and replacing them with non-hardness ions, typically sodium supplied by dissolved sodium chloride salt, or brine. The softener contains a microporous exchange resin, usually sulfonated polystyrene beads that are supersaturated with sodium to cover the bead surfaces. As water passes through this resin bed, calcium and magnesium ions attach to the resin beads and the loosely held sodium is released from the resin into the water. After softening a large quantity of hard water the beads become saturated with calcium and magnesium ions. When this occurs, the exchange resin must be regenerated, or recharged. To regenerate, the ion exchange resin is flushed with a salt brine solution. The sodium ions in the salt brine solution are exchanged with the calcium and magnesium ions on the resin and excess calcium and magnesium is flushed out with wastewater. Frequency of the regeneration or recharge cycle depends on the hardness of the water, the amount of water used, size of the softener, and capacity of the resins. Sixty to 120 minutes generally are required for the brine to pass through the unit and flush the tank before soft water is available again.
Step 2) Electrocoagulation – is performed by applying an electric current across metal plates that are submerged in water. Heavy metals, organics, and inorganics are primarily held in water by electrical charges. By applying another electrical charge to the contaminated water, the charges that hold the particles together are destabilized and separate from the clean water. The particles then coagulate to form a mass, which can be easily removed.
Step 3) Flocculation – after the raw water has been coagulated, it is gently mixed by large mechanical paddles in a process called flocculation. Flocculation causes the fine, light particles that were created during the coagulation process to mature into larger, denser, stable particles that will settle quickly.
Step 4) Sedimentation – the flocculated water then travels into primary settling basins or clarifiers. In the primary settling basins, the large, dense particles formed during the coagulation and flocculation processes settle allowing the clarified water to be separated and forwarded on through the remainder of the water treatment process. The settled particles form a sludge layer on the bottom of each primary settling basin. This sludge is periodically removed from the basins.
Step 5) pH Adjustment – the next step in the process is adjustment of the pH of the water. Lime, also known as calcium oxide, is added during this step to achieve the desired target pH. Adjusting the pH makes the water more basic, and less corrosive to the pipes it will eventually travel through. A small amount of polyphosphate solution is also added with the lime. Polyphosphate is used as a sequestrant, which helps to keep the lime in dissolved water.
Step 6) Filtration – the final step in the purification process is filtration. Rapid gravity filters use granular filter media (sand and anthracite) to remove any remaining suspended particles in the water. This step in the treatment process consists of passing the water through a filter at a controlled rate. Any particles remaining in the water adhere to the filter media and are removed from the water. Micro filtration and Ultra filtration are then used for further physical separation. The extent to which dissolved solids, turbidity and microorganisms are removed is determined by the size of the pores in the membranes. Substances that are larger than the pores in the membranes are fully removed. Substances that are smaller than the pores of the membranes are partially removed, depending on the construction of a refuse layer on the membrane. Micro filtration and ultra filtration are pressure-dependent processes, which remove dissolved solids and other substances from water to a lesser extend than nano filtration and Reverse Osmosis. Membranes with a pore size of 0.1 – 10 µm perform micro filtration. Microfiltration membranes remove all bacteria. Only part of the viral contamination is caught up in the process, even though viruses are smaller than the pores of a micro filtration membrane. This is because viruses can attach themselves to bacterial biofilm. For complete removal of viruses, we must then employ ultra filtration. The pores of our ultra filtration membranes can remove particles of 0.001 – 0.1 µm from fluids. After filtration, the purification process is complete.